Why Technical English

World Wide Web | September 3, 2011

Dear friends of Technical English,

I have just started publishing materials for my projected e-book devoted to the Internet English, i.e. English around the Internet. It means that during a certain period of time I will publish posts which will make basic technical texts in units of the mentioned e-book with a working name Internet English. The draft content of the e-book has already been published on my blog http://traintechenglish.wordpress.com in the newsletter Number 33 – WWW, Part 1 / August 2011. One topic in the list means one unit in the e-book.

Thus you find below the first post of a post series dealing with Internet English. I hope these texts will contribute to develop your professional English and at the same time will bring you topical information about the Internet.    Galina Vitkova

 

World Wide Web

 Composed by Galina Vitkova

The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. A Web browser enables a user to view Web pages that may contain text, images, and other multimedia. Moreover, the browser ensures navigation between the pages using hyperlinks. The Web was created around 1990 by the English Tim Berners-Lee and the Belgian Robert Cailliau working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.

Today, the Web and the Internet allow connecti...

Today, the Web and the Internet allow connecti...

The term Web is often mistakenly used as a synonym for the Internet itself, but the Web is a service that operates over the Internet, as e-mail, for example, does. The history of the Internet dates back significantly further than that of the Web.

Basic terms

The World Wide Web is the combination of four basic ideas:

  • The hypertext: a format of information which in a computer environment allows one to move from one part of a document to another or from one document to another through internal connections (called hyperlinks) among these documents;
  • Resource Identifiers: unique identifiers used to locate a particular resource (computer file, document or other resource) on the network – this is commonly known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), although the two have subtle technical differences;
  • The Client-server model of computing: a system in which client software or a client computer makes requests of server software or a server computer that provides the client with resources or services, such as data or files;
  • Markup language: characters or codes embedded in a text, which indicate structure, semantic meaning, or advice on presentation.

 

How the Web works

Viewing a Web page or other resource on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a Web browser, or by following a hypertext link to that page or resource. The act of following hyperlinks from one Web site to another is referred to as browsing or sometimes as surfing the Web. The first step is to resolve the server-name part of the URL into an Internet Protocol address (IP address) by the global, distributed Internet database known as the Domain name system (DNS). The browser then establishes a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection with the server at that IP address.

TCP state diagram

TCP state diagram

The next step is dispatching a HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request to the Web server in order to require the resource. In the case of a typical Web page, the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) text is first requested and parsed (parsing means a syntactic analysis) by the browser, which then makes additional requests for graphics and any other files that form a part of the page in quick succession. After that the Web browser renders (see a note at the end of this paragraph) the page as described by the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and other files received, incorporating the images and other resources as necessary. This produces the on-screen page that the viewer sees.

Notes:

  • Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model by means of computer programs.
  • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the look and formatting of a document written in a markup language.

 

Web standards

At its core, the Web is made up of three standards:

  • the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource on the Internet;
  • the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which presents a networking protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems, HTTP is the foundation of data communication on the Web;
  • the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), which is the predominant markup language for web pages. A markup language presents a modern system for annotating a text in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from that text.

 


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