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Nuclear energy future after Fukushima | March 23, 2011

Composed by Galina Vitkova

What the damage to the Fukushima plant (see picture below) forecasts for Japan—and the world? But first, let us introduce general description of nuclear power stations in order to sense problems caused by the breakdown. 

 

The Fukushima 1 NPP

Image via Wikipedia

 Nuclear fission. Nowadays nuclear power stations generate energy using nuclear fission (Fukushima belongs to this type of nuclear power plants). Atoms of uranium (235) rods in the reactor are split in the process of fission and cause a chain reaction with other nuclei. During this process a large amount of energy is released. The energy heats water to create steam, which rotates a turbine together with a generator, producing electricity.

Depending on the type of fission, presumptions for ensuring supply of the fuel at existing level varies from several decades for the Uranium-235 to thousands of years for uranium-238. At the present rate of use, uranium-235 reserves (as of 2007) will be exhausted in about 70 years. The nuclear industry persuades that the cost of fuel makes a minor cost component for fission power. In future, mining of uranium sources could be more expensive, more difficult. However, increasing the price of uranium would have little brought about the overall cost of nuclear power. For instance, a doubling in the cost of natural uranium would increase the total cost of nuclear power by 5 percent. On the other hand, double increasing of natural gas price results in 60 percent growth of the cost of gas-fired power.

The possibility of nuclear meltdowns and other reactor accidents, such as the Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl disaster, have caused much public concern. Nevertheless, coal and hydro- power stations have both accompanied by more deaths per energy unit produced than nuclear power generation.

At present, nuclear energy is in decline, according to a 2007 World Nuclear Industry Status Report presented in the European Parliament. The report outlines that the share of nuclear energy in power production decreased in 21 out of 31 countries, with five fewer functioning nuclear reactors than five years ago. Currently 32 nuclear power plants are under construction or in the pipeline, 20 fewer than at the end of the 1990s.

Fusion. Fusion power could solve many of fission power problems. Nevertheless, despite research started in the 1950s, no commercial fusion reactor is expected before 2050. Many technical problems remain unsolved. Proposed fusion reactors commonly use deuterium and lithium as fuel.  Under assumption that a fusion energy output will be kept in the future, then the known lithium reserves would endure 3000 years, lithium from sea water would endure 60 million years. A more complicated fusion process using only deuterium from sea water would have fuel for 150 billion years.

Due to a joint effort of the European Union (EU), America, China, India, Japan, Russia and South Korea a prototype reactor is being constructed on a site in Cadarache (in France). It is supposed to be put into operation by 2018.

Initial projections in 2006 put its price at €10 billion ($13 billion): €5 billion to build and another €5 billion to run and decommission the thing. Since then construction costs alone have tripled.

As the host, the EU is committed to covering 45% of these, with the other partners contributing about 9% each. In May 2010 the European Commission asked member states to conduce an additional €1.4 billion to cope with the project over to 2013. Member states rejected the request.

Sustainability: The environmental movement emphasizes sustainability of energy use and development. “Sustainability” also refers to the ability of the environment to cope with waste products, especially air pollution.

The long-term radioactive waste storage problems of nuclear power have not been fully solved till now. Several countries use underground repositories. Needless to add nuclear waste takes up little space compared to wastes from the chemical industry which remains toxic indefinitely.

Future of nuclear industry. Let us return to how the damage to the Fukushima plant affects future usage of nuclear power in the future in Japan – and in the world.

Share of nuclear electricity production in total domestic production

Nowadays nuclear plants provide about a third of Japan’s electricity (see chart), Fukushima is not the first to be paralysed by an earthquake. But it is the first to be stricken by the technology dependence on a supply of water for cooling.

The 40-year-old reactors in Fukushima run by the Tokyo Electric Power Company faced a disaster beyond anything their designers were required to imagine.

What of the rest of the world? Nuclear industry supporters had hopes of a nuclear renaissance as countries try to reduce carbon emissions. A boom like that of the 1970s is talked, when 25 or so plants started construction each year in rich countries. Public opinion will surely take a dive. At the least, it will be difficult to find the political will or the money to modernise the West ageing reactors, though without modernisation they will not become safer. The heartless images from Fukushima, and the sense of lurching misfortune, will not be forgotten even if final figures unveil little damage to health. France, which has 58 nuclear reactors, seems to see the disaster in Japan as an opportunity rather than an obstacle for its nuclear industry. On March 14th President Nicolas Sarkozy said that French-built reactors have lost international tenders because they are expensive: “but they are more expensive because they are safer.”

However, the region where nuclear power should grow fastest, and seems to be deterred, is the rest of Asia. Two-thirds of the 62 plants under construction in the world are in Asia. Russia plans another ten. By far the most important arising nuclear power is China, which has 13 working reactors and 27 more on the way. China has announced a pause in nuclear commissioning, and a review. But its leaders know that they must go away from coal: the damage to health from a year of Chinese coal-burning plants is bigger then from nuclear industry. And if anyone can build cheap nuclear plants, it is probably the Chinese.

In case the West turns its back on nuclear power and China holds on, the results could be unfortunate. Nuclear plants need trustworthy and transparent regulation.

  References

  • The risks exposed: What the damage to the Fukushima plant portends for Japan—and the world; The Economist, March 19th 2011
  • Expensive Iteration: A huge international fusion-reactor project faces funding difficulties; The Economist, July 22nd 2010  

 

 

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11 Comments »

  1. Все несчастья с АЭС были по вине человека – либо не учли проектанты нахождение АЭС в зоне разлома (Чернобыль, Саяны, Япония), либо поставили на берегу океана, убрали несколько сейсмодатчиков (эксплуатация Саяны), не учли автоматикой отключение при появлении колебаний низкой частоты (Саяны), не предусмотрели аварийное электропитание питание пожаротушения, реактора, машзала (Белоярская).
    У меня есть несколько предложений по атомным станциям.
    1. Пора разрабатывать станции, работающие на литиевом сплаве в системе отбора тепла от ректора. Повышение КПД, и повышение готовности перехода на связку Атомная станция – высокотемпературное производство (производств таких много).
    2. Новая система охлаждения статоров машин и трансформаторов, Витки надо делать полыми из электроизоляционного материала, покрытого сплошным электропроводящим слоем (например, алюминий) и дополнительным покрытием или без него (для ЛЭП) электроизоляционный лаком.
    3. В составе реактора предусмотреть аварийный дополнительный теплообменник пустой при нормальной работе с подогревом приемного теплообменника, соединения в сейсмически неспокойных районах и вблизи зоны разлома должны быть выполнены гибкими с «компенсаторами» изменения размеров.
    4. Автономное электроснабжение реактора должно быть выполнено при строительстве или в плановом порядке на действующих станциях.
    5. Для предотвращения веерных отключений генераторов сменить логику защиты, добавить компьютерные возможности, при перегрузке нагрузка должна быть отключена РАНЬШЕ генератора, нагрузки разбить по секциям и выделить приоритетные. Выключатели и включатели снабдить дистанционным управлением из ОДУ.
    Готовы решения по непрерывному получению кокса и алюминия. Остальные проще. Могу оказать помощь при составлении технического задания на проектирование.

    Comment by Атомная энергетика и ее несчастья — April 4, 2011 @ 3:25 pm

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    Comment by minecraft servers — December 10, 2011 @ 5:33 am

  5. Разместил это на своем блоге с ссылкой на ваш сайт. Надеюсь, Вам это какую-нибудь пользу принесет

    Comment by http://impex-eco.ru/oknainfos/11/100/10 — December 22, 2011 @ 8:58 pm

    • Спасибо! А Вам неинтересно будущее энергетики? Ведь без электричества нет современной цивилизации. А если перестанут строить атомные электростанции или их начнут закрывать, как это сейчас делают в Германии, то очень скоро, прежде всего в Европе, будет недостаток электроэнергии.
      В любом случае желаю Вам больших успехов в наступаюшем Новом году.
      Галина Виткова

      Comment by gvitkova — December 24, 2011 @ 9:29 am

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    Comment by Nuclear Threat — October 6, 2012 @ 12:55 am

    • Thank you for your comment. I will study objections against nuclear energy mentioned on your site.
      I wish you every success.
      Galina Vitkova

      Comment by gvitkova — October 13, 2012 @ 7:21 pm


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